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四川大学2012年考博英语阅读理解

There are people in Italy who can’t stand soccer. Not all Canadians love hockey. A similar situation exists in America, where there are those individuals you may be one of them who yawn or even frown when somebody mentions baseball. 『Baseball to them means boring hours watching grown men in funny tight outfits standing around in a field staring away while very little of anything happens.』① They tell you it’s a game better suited to the 19th century, slow, quiet, gentlemanly. These are the same people you may be one of them who love football because there’s the sport that glorifies “the hit”.    I!u fw\[  
      By contrast, baseball seems abstract, cool, silent, still.   [;$9s=:[  
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      On TV the game is fractured into a dozen perspectives, replays, closeups. The geometry of the game, however, is essential to understanding it. You will contemplate the game from one point as a painter does his subject; you may, of course, project yourself into the game. It is in this projection that the game affords so much space and time for involvement. The TV won’t do it for you.    +?ilTU  
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      Take, for example, the third baseman. You sit behind the third base dugout and you watch him watching home plate. His legs are apart, knees flexed. His arms hang loose. He does a lot of this. The skeptic still cannot think of any other sports so still, so passive. 『But watch what happens every time the pitcher throws: the third baseman goes up on his toes, flexes his arms or bring the glove to a point in front of him, takes a step right or left, backward or forward, perhaps he glances across the field to check his first baseman’s position.』② Suppose the pitch is a ball. “Nothing happened,” you say. “I could have had my eyes closed.”    qMmhVUx  
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      The skeptic and the innocent must play the game. And this involvement in the stands is no more intellectual than listening to music is. Watch the third baseman. Smooth the dirt in front of you with one foot; smooth the pocket in your glove; watch the eyes of the batter, the speed of the bat, the sound of horsehide on wood. If football is a symphony of movement and theatre, baseball is chamber music, a spacious interlocking of notes, chores and responses.    bq"dKN`  
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      1. The passage is mainly concerned with .    ftccga  
      A. the different tastes of people for sports    Ybp';8V  
      B. the different characteristics of sports    JB9s# `  
      C. the attraction of football    6rh^?B  
      D. the attraction of baseball    Xr]<v%,C  
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      2. Those who don’t like baseball may complain that .    25/M2u?  
      A. it is only to the taste of the old    UsnIx54D3  
      B. it involves fewer players than football    ldRisL  
      C. it is not exciting enough    ;C~:C^Q\H  
      D. it is pretentious and looks funny   ?xYoCn}Z  
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      3. The author admits that .    f1 Zj:3e  
      A. baseball is too peaceful for the young    fB`7f $[  
      B. baseball may seem boring when watched on TV    Ag_I'   
      C. football is more attracting than baseball    3$ h yV{  
      D. baseball is more interesting than football   {:ZsUnzm  
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      4. By stating “I could have had my eyes closed. ” the author means (4th paragraph last sentence):    Z lR2  
      A. The third baseman would rather sleep than play the game.    o`~ %}3  
      B. Even if the third baseman closed his eyes a moment ago, it could make no different to the result.    {/q4W; D  
      C. The third baseman is so good at baseball that he could finish the game with eyes closed all the time and do his work well.    Oi,:q&  
      D. The consequent was too bad he could not bear to see it.    fe+2U|y  
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      5. We can safely conclude that the author .    '-vzQd@y  
      A. likes footballB. hates football    <a)L5<#  
      C. hates baseballD. likes baseball   Nj$h/P  
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      Vocabulary    %C~LKs5oH  
      1. dugout n. 棒球场边供球员休息的地方    /..a9x{At>  
      2. pitcher n. 投手    4=7h1qex  
      3. symphony n. 交响乐    faPgp  
      4. chamber n. 室内    O`D,>=[  
      5. contemplate vt.沉思,注视   @Xl/<S&  
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      长难句解析    g: ,*Y^T  
      ①【解析】此句的主干是“Baseball…means…watching…”,其中“in funny tight outfits”用来修饰“grown men”,“standing…”和“staring”用来做“grown men”的定语。    ,,C heRO  
      【译文】对于他们来说,棒球就是在无聊的几个小时中几个身着紧身衣的大人伫立在场地周围没事可做地东张西望。    3FE=?Q  
      ②【解析】这是一个复合句,“goes up…”,“flexes…”“takes…”,“glances…”做“the third baseman”的并列谓语。    CyV(+KBe_  
      【译文】但每当投球手掷出球的那一瞬间,你再看吧,三垒运动员脚尖点地,屈臂或把接球手套直指前方,左右移动步伐,或前或后,或许他还要越过场地盯着一垒球手的动作。   q+?>shqsZ  
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      答案与详解    !1fAW! 8  
      【短文大意】本文主要讲述垒球的特征及欣赏。    >%Nqgn$V  
      1. D主旨题。文章第一段简述了人们对垒球所持的偏见——认为它毫无活力、从容和缓,不像橄榄球那样高潮迭起、令人激动。文章的第二、三、四、五段探讨了垒球的根本特征及欣赏角度,文章的最后一句话用一个比喻概括了垒球的魅力:“如果橄榄球是一曲交响乐的话,那么,垒球中所表现出来的运动恰似一曲优美的室内乐。”可见,本文主要探讨的是垒球的特点及其欣赏。 A不对,第一段也确实提到了不同观众对不同运动形式的偏好,但这只是用以引出对垒球的特征及欣赏的讨论。    8|H^u6+yz  
      2. C细节题。文章第一段指出:许多人不喜欢垒球,一提起垒球这些人就打哈欠甚至皱眉头。对他们来说,看垒球意味着眼巴巴地观望着身着运动装(outfit)的人呆立在球场上,东瞧瞧西望望,很少有什么(激动人心的)事发生——没意思透了。他们认为这样的运动更适合上个世纪的人的口味,不像橄榄球那样充满活力。 A意为:“它只适合老年人的口味。”注意:原文说的是适合上个世纪的人的口味,二者意味不一样。 D意为:“它矫揉造作、滑稽可笑。”这与说它gentlemanly(具有绅士风度,矜持,即:没有冲撞或拼抢)不一样。    kbKGGn4u  
      3. B推断题。第三段指出,在电视上,垒球运动被切换成不同角度的画面,而且不断地使用重放、特写等电视制作技术,这破坏了该运动的整体运动感,使观众无法将自己投入(project)到运动中去,以体会到这种寓动于静的运动之美。电视做不到这一点(The TV won’t do it for you),因此,电视上的垒球比赛看上去(seems)孤孤单单、冷冷清清、沉沉静静、慢慢腾腾。C、D不对,作者仅指出了不同运动有不同运动的特征,并未说哪种运动优于哪种。参阅文章最后一句。    J>%uak<  
      4. B推断题。第四段整个都在描述垒球场上的一个场景:拿三垒的运动员假设对方全投出好球,作好了一切准备,但是对方投出的并不是好球。所以在那时候他的准备做不做都不会影响比赛结果。他说本来可以闭上眼睛,意思就是B项所写的。A、C、D都不符合作者的意图。这道题需要完整地了解第四段内容才能作好选择。    x 'hUw*  
      5. D推断题。在本文中,作者主要探讨了垒球的特征及欣赏,作者着重指出的是:只有根据垒球的特征来欣赏它,才能体会到它的魅力。在他看来,观察到垒球比赛中运动员的各种动作、垒球位之间的关系等是欣赏它的关键(第三段第二句)。只有从整体来把握它,才能看到每一个小的动作、每一个眼神乃至于“静止”的意义,也只有这样,才能全身心地投入比赛中,欣赏到它的魅力。可见,作者对垒球有很深的理解而且非常喜爱垒球。主要参考第三、四、五段。 P h/!a6y  
Among the more colorful characters of Leadville’s golden age were H.A.W.Tabor and his second wife,Elizabeth McCourt,better known as “Baby Doe”.Their history is fast becoming one of the legends of the Old West.Horace Austin Warner Tabor was a school teacher in Vermont.With his first wife and two children he left Vermont by covered wagon in 1855 to homestead in Kansas.Perhaps he did not find farming to his liking,or perhaps he was lured by rumors of fortunes to be made in Colorado mines.At any rate,a few years later he moved west to the small Colorado mining camp known as California Gulch,which he later renamed Leadville when he became its leading citizen. “Great deposits of lead are sure to be found here.”he said.    bbAJ5EqL  
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      As it turned out,it was silver,not lead,that was to make Leadville’s fortune and wealth. Tabor knew little about mining himself,so he opened a general store,which sold everything from boots to salt,flour,and tobacco.『It was his custom to “grubstake” prospective miners,in other words,to supply them with food and supplies,or “grub”, while they looked for ore,in return for which he would get a share in the mine if one was discovered.』①He did this for a number of years,but no one that he aided ever found anything of value.    - A)X Yz  
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      Finally one day in the year 1878,so the story goes,two miners came in and asked for “grub”. Tabor had decided to quit supplying it because he had lost too much money that way.These were persistent, however,and Tabor was too busy to argue with them. “Oh help yourself.One more time won’t make any difference,” He said and went on selling shoes and hats to other customers.the two miners took $17 worth of supplies,in return for which they gave Tabor a one-third interest in their findings.They picked a barren place on the mountainside and began to dig.After nine days they struck a rich vein of silver.Tabor bought the shares of the other two men,and so the mine belonged to him alone.This mine,known as the “Pittsburgh Mine,” made 1 300 000 for Tabor in return for his $17 investment.    Z Vj  
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      Later Tabor bought the Matchless Mine on another barren hillside just outside the town for $117 000.This turned out to be even more fabulous than the Pittsburgh,yielding $35 000 worth of silver per day at one time.Leadville grew.Tabor became its first mayor,and later became lieutenant governor of the state.   +?R !  
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      1.Leadville got its name for the following reasons EXCEPT.    /IyCvo  
      A.because Tabor became its leading citizen    j/*4Wj[  
      B.because great deposits of lead is expected to be found there    q:X&)f  
      C.because it could bring good fortune to Tabor    @-H D9h  
      D.because it was renamed    XTPf~Te,=  
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      2.The word “grubstake” in paragraph 2 means.    mjXO}q7  
      A.to supply miners with food and supplies    FNB4YZ6  
      B.to open a general store    G@I/Dy  
      C.to do one’s contribution to the development of the mine     %3A~&  
      D.to supply miners with food and supplies and in return get a share in the mine,if one was discovered    cO^}A(Ma(  
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      3.Tabor made his first fortune.    YKWts y  
      A.by supplying two prospective miners and getting in return a one-third interest in the findings    +4--Dl ?  
      B.because he was persuaded by the two miners to quit supplying    .W1i3Z6g  
      C.by buying the shares of the other    &R~)/y0]  
      D.as a land speculator    /C"?Y'  
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      4. The underlying reason for Tabor’s life career is.     ZXL  
      A. purely accidental    g?=|kp  
      B. based on the analysis of miner’s being very poor and their possibility of discovering profitable mining site    cJ#|mzup  
      C. through the help from his second wife    JC}oc M j0  
      D. he planned well and accomplished targets step by step   *&A/0]w  
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      5.If this passage is the first part of an article,who might be introduced in the following part?    u/g4s (a  
      A.Tabor’s life.    $yY\[C  
      B.Tabor’s second wife,Elizabeth McCourt.    i<uWLhgh1$  
      C.Other colorful characters.    +kN/-UsB  
      D.Tabor’s other careers.    `SH#t3 5,  
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      Vocabulary    u^NZsuak  
      1.barren adj. 贫瘠的    U6M3,"?  
      2.fabulous adj. 神话般的,难以置信的    }W)c-91   
      3.lure vt.诱惑,引诱    eTrIN,4  
      4.deposit n.沉淀,储蓄    c2iPm9"eh  
      5.grubstake v.下注   f+o %N  
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      长难句解析    @cz\'v6E  
      ①【解析】“It”是形式主语,真正的主语是“to”后面的句子,“while”引导时间状语从句。    E"{2R>mU~  
      【译文】他的通常做法是对来采矿的人“下注”,说得更明确一点就是泰勃供给这些人食品、用品等物品,作为回报,当他们采到矿后就会分给他一部分股份。    Sy ?O(BMo  
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      答案与详解    (ev(~Wc  
      【短文大意】本文主要讲述霍塞斯·奥斯汀·沃纳·泰勃发家的故事。    vn0}l6n3s  
      1. C细节题。因为Leadville可以为Tabor带来巨富。这一点不是Leadville得名的原因,因为在文章第二段中,讲到这一点时,提及三个原因:A.因为Tabor成为当地的居民代表人物,B.因为在Leadville有丰富的铅的储藏量。D.因为Leadville是因为Tabor重要而起的名,唯独C没有,因为到后来发现是银矿才给他带来巨富。    XKEd~2h<y  
      2. D词汇题。第二段中grubstake的词义与D所述内容是相同的,即“供给探矿者资金,衣物,食品以及其他物品”。(可参阅英华大辞典修订第二版64页)但此处还补充地讲,作为回报,供给者可以获得矿中资源一定份额。(见文章第二段第4行)     {Hp*BE   
      3. A细节题。Tabor第一次真正发财是他为两名矿工提供资助,为此他获得他们矿资源三分之一的股份。见文章第三段4-9行内容:两名开矿者从Tabor那儿借走价值17美元的物品,作为回报,Tabor获得他们矿资源三分之一股份。于是两位开矿者在一座山旁的不毛之地开始挖掘,九天之后,发现了银的富矿,于是Tabor又将两人的股份全买下,这样,银矿属于Tabor一个人所有,这个矿就是后来著名的“匹兹堡”矿。Tabor用17美元的投资换来了130万美元的收获。    D3BNA]P\2@  
      4. B推断题。由原文可知泰勃的财产来源是有一定偶然性的,但是毕竟也是基于他开创的“grubstake”模式,因为A、D都不对,C更是没有根据,因为他还没有娶第二位夫人这一切就发生了。分析泰勃的做法,会得出B选项所示的结论。    ci~pM<+  
      5. B推断题。如果本文是一篇文章的第一部分,那么在文章的第二部分将介绍谁呢?key可以从文章第一句分析出来,在Leadville的黄金年代,其多彩的特点当中,Tabor及其第二任妻子Elizabeth McCourt是值得大书特书的,接着,文章都在讲述有关H.A.W.Tabor发家致富的历史,如先买下匹兹堡矿,后又买下Matchless矿,最后成为市长,代理州长,等等,所以涉及到的全是男主人公,因此下边再讲的话,应成为女主人公即Elizabeth McCourt的天地了,她是Tabor的第二任妻子。这是顺理成章的事
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Given the lack of fit between gifted students and their schools, it is not surprising that such students often have little good to say about their school experiences. In one study of 400 adults who had achieved distinction in all areas of life, researchers found that three fifths of these individuals either did badly in school or were unhappy in school. Few MacArthunr Prize fellows, winners of the MacArthur Award for creative accomplishment, had good things to say about their precollegiate schooling if they had not been placed in advanced programs. Anecdotal(名人轶事的) reports support this. Pablo Picasso, Charles Darwin, MARK twain, Oliver Goldsmith, and William Butler Yests all disliked school .so did Winston Churchill, who almost failed out of Harrow, an boy.” Often these children realize that they know more than their teachers, and their teachers oft feel that these children are arrogant, inattentive, or unmotivated. ? !dy  
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Some of these gifted people may have done poorly in school because their gifts were not scholastic. Maybe we can account for Picasso in this way/But most fared poorly in school not because they lacked ability but because they found school unchanging and consequently lost interest. Yeats described the lack of fit between his mind and school∶″Because I had found it difficult to attend to anything less interesting than my own thoughts, I was difficult to teach.”As noted earlier, gifted children of all kinds tend to be strong-willed nonconformists. Nonconformity and stubbornness (and Yeats’s level of arrogance and self-absorption) are likely to lead to conflicts with teachers. %FDv6peH  
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When highly gifted students in any domain talk about what was important to the development of their abilities, they are far more likely to mention their families than their schools or teachers. A writing prodigy(神童) studied by David Feldman and Lynn Goldsmith was taught far more about writing by his journalist father than his English teacher. High-IQ children in Australia studied by Miraca Gross had much more positive feelings about their families than their schools. About half of the mathematicians studied by Benjamin Bloom had little good to say about school. They all did well in school and took honors classes when available, and some skipped grades. ~KW|<n4m  
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26、The main point the author is making about schools is that________. ds*N1[ *  
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A) they should satisfy the needs of students from different family backgrounds RWe$ZZSz!  
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B) they are often incapable of catering to the needs of talented students vG{+}o#  
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C) they should organize their classes according to the students’ ability 7O=N78M  
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D) they should enroll as many gifted students as possible ","O8'$OC  
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27、The author quotes the remarks of one of Oliver Goldsmith’s teachers_________. OzVCqq"]  
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B) to illustrate the strong will of some gifted children ]g3RVA%\l  
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C) to explain how dull students can also be successful (}#8$ )  
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D) to show how poor Oliver’s performance was at school 1iiQW  
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28、Pable Picasso is listed among the many gifted children who_________. *\n-yx]  
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A) paid no attention to their teachers in class WXj iKW(  
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B) contradicted their teachers much too often ?=dp]E{  
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C) could not cope with there-studies at school successfully ,bGYixIfYZ  
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D) behaved arrogantly and stubbornly in the presence of their teachers. ,O'#7Dj  
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29、Many gifted people attributed their success___________. # GbfFoE  
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A) mainly to parental help and their education at home Py~1xf/  
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B) both to school instruction and to their parents’ coaching [q!/YL3 %  
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C) more to their parents’ encouragement than to school training xh:A*ZI=7  
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30、The root cause of many gifted students having bad memories of their school years is that ____. ^:u-wr8?{  
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【正确答案】 TXS{=  
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A) their nonconformity brought them a lot of trouble GMlJM  
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B) they were seldom praised by their teachers `4-N@h  
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C) school courses failed to inspire or motivate them [4r<WvUaM  
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D) teachers were usually far stricter than their parents NXMZTZpB7  
这是另外一篇!!!!!!!!!!!!!! wlFK#iK  
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